amerikaNi kuki aba ba perezida bÔÇÖAmerika bishwe?(igice cya mbere)

Mu gihe gishize twabagejejeho  inkuru ya Perezida wa 40 w’amerika wavutse mu 1911,agatabaruka mu 2004 ariwe Ronald Wilson Reagan  wo mu ishyaka ry’aba Republican  wabaye Perezida kuva 1980 kugeza1988 tubagezeho n’ukuntu yarusimbitse yarashwe ariko tubasezeranya ko tuzabagezaho abandi ba Perezida bicyo gihugu bishwe n’ababa barabishe.amerika

       Perezida Abraham Lincoln wabimburiye abandi kwicwa

Uyu munsi dutangiriye kuri Perezida Abraham Lincoln (Linken) nk’uko abanyamerika iryo zina barivuga wabaye Perezida wa 16 akaba ariwe Perezida wabimburiye abandi kwicwa apfa  afite imyaka 56 ageze mu kigero cy’ibikwerere.

Amerika nicyo gihugu gifatwa nk’igihanganjye ku isi kubera ubushobozi gifite mu bijyanye n’ubukungu,ibya gisirikare n’ububanyi n’amahanga.Niyo mpamvu perezida w’icyo gihugu afatwa nka  Perezida w’isi yose kubera ko undi mu Perezida w’ikindi gihugu uwo batavuga rumwe n’Amerika bucya bamugabyeho igitero ibi bikaba nta kindi gihugu ku isi cyashobora kuvogera ubusugire bw’ikindi gihugu usibye Amerika ari nabyo bituma bimwe mu bihugu  by’Abarabu bifata Amerika nk’umwanzi kubera uko kwivanga mu buyobozi bw’ibindi bihugu.

Ibi kandi ni nabyo bituma perezida w’icyo gihugu ariwe muyobozi  wo ku rwego rwo hejuru ucungirwa umutekano uhenze  agakurikirwa  na  Papa (Umushumba wa Kiliziya Gatulika). Iki gihugu gifite ubushobozi buhagije mu bijyanye n’ubukungu,  muri siyansi, muriTekinoloji ndetse n’igisirikale gifite ibikoresho bigezweho tutibagiwe urwego rw’ubutasi (CIA) ryemerwa ku isi yose ruza ku mwanya wa mbere nyuma  y’izindi nzego z’ubutasi z’ibihugu bindi nazo zikomeye nka MOSAD (Isiraheli), ABHWER ( Abadage) na KGB (Uburusiya bwa cyera) Amerika ikaba ari n’iyambere mu bushakashatsi ariko abaperezida babo baranga bakicwa.

Abrahamu  Lincoln waje kubaPerezida 16 w’Amerika yavutse tariki 12 Gashyantare 1809 avukira mu gace kitwaga umujyi w’ibigoryi ariwo Hardin County mu mujyi wa Kentucky. Kubera amateka yaho  hantu yakuriye no muryango ukennye yavukiyemo wasaga n’uwashigajwe inyuma n’amateka Lincoln yize amashuri nabi (asibira) byageraga aho akora ibiraka ngo atunge umuryango wabo kandi nawe abone uko yishyura amafaranga y’ishuri (Minerval/school fees).

Nyuma yaho ababyeyi be baje kwimukira mu mujyi wa New Alem uri mu Ntara ya Illinos, aho niho yatangiriye kujya muri Politiki atangiriye mu shyaka rya Politiki ryitwaga  Whig Party, aho yaje guhatanira ubudepite akaza gutsindira uwo mwanya mu Ntara ya Illinos mu mwaka 1834.

Nkuko abari baramubanjirije bo mu Ishyaka rya Whig babigenzaga banga icuruzwa ry’abantu ryakorwaga icyo gihe  mu gihugu ,nawe yaje atemera na gato iryo curuzwa ry’abantu bitaga (Slave Trade) kandi yari afite inzozi z’uko Amerika ishobora kuba igihugu cy’igihanganye  biturutse mu bucuruzi butari ubw’abantu cyangwa ubuhinzi nk’uko  muri iyo myaka ibyo ari byo byatezaga abantu imbere gucuruza abantu  (Abirabura) cyangwa ubuhinzi.

Usibye kuba umunyapolitiki Licoln yakomeje kwiga ibinyanye n’ubutabera  arangiriza mu mwaka 1836. Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho yatandukanye n’umuryango we yimukiye mu mujyi  icyo gihe wubakwaga witwa Springfield aho yamaze imyaka myinshi ari umunyamategeko  yaje kwemerwa mu bijyanye n’amategeko bigeraho abantu bamuhimba izina ry’umunyamategeko wizerwa “Honest Abe.”

Akora uwo murimo wo kunganira abantu mu bijyanye n’amategeko (Lawyer) yari umuntu ushyikirana na buri rwego rw’abantu kuko yaburaniraga abantu b’ingeri zose guhera kuri rubanda rugufi ukagera no ku bakomeye .Muri uwo murimo we,niho yaje kmenyana n’umwari witwaga Mary Todd wari  umukobwa mwiza  bituma kubera ikimero cye abantu bamuhimbaga amazina menshi nka Le Chantou na La Belle of Kentucky kubera ubwo bwiza bwe byatumye abagabo benshi bamurwanira nawe bituma agira inshuti nyinshi (many suitors one husband), mu bakundaga uwo mukobwa harimo  n’uwo bahanganaga muri Pilitiki witwaga Stephen Douglas, ariko amahirwe yaje gusekera Lincoln,aba ariwe uba inshuti yuwo mukobwa ari nawe baje gusezerana imbere y’Imana mu mwaka 1842.

Mu mwaka  w’1846 yatsinze amatora yinjira mu nteko aho yari mu rwego rw’abadepite baciritse (Congress) ;ariko nyuma yaje kwangwa n’abaturage yari ahagarariye  ba Illinos bamuziza ko atari ashyigikiye ubushyamirane bwari hagati y’igihugu cy’Amerika n’igihugu cya Mexique kubera iyo mpamvu manda yakurikiyeho ntabwo yiyamamaje kuko abaturage bari baramubwiye ko niyiyamamaza batazamutora.

Kandi usibye na rubanda rwamwangaga n’abayobozi bagenzi be  bo mu ishyaka rye nabo baramwangaga kubera ihame rye ryo kwanga kumugaragaro icuruzwa ry’abantu ,kandi ariho benshi bakuraga amaronko.

Ibyo byatumye ava muri ryo shyaka rye rya Whig party yimukira mu rindi shyaka rishya ryari rivutse ryitwaga REPUBLICAN aho amahame yaryo nyamukuru kwari ugukuraho icuruzwa ry’abantu.

Nyuma  yo kujya muri ryo shyaka rya Republican muri Nyakanga 1858, yiyamamarije kuba umusenateri  yavuze  disikuru ikarishye aho yavugaga avangamo n’ijambo ry’Imana  .

Iyo disikuru yaje kwitwa “House Divide Speech” hamwe niyo disikuru yakunzwe ariko uwo bahatanaga kuri uwo mwanya Stephen Douglas niwe watsinze kuri uwo mwanya.

Ariko kubera impano yari afite yo gukundwa kubera gukora cyane,kandi akanashyikirana n’abantu b’ ingeri zose  mu ishyaka ry’aba Republicans; byatumye bamwiyumvamo hanyuma muri Gicurasi 1860, abanyamuryango b’aba Republicans bamutorera kuba umukandida ku mwanya wa Perezida w’Amerika ku bwiganze bw’amajwi  menshi cyane.Akaba ari nawe wagombaga kuzamura idarapo ry’ishyaka ryabo mu gihe baramutse batsinze.Icyo gihe yarushije amajwi abasenateri bari bafite amazina azwi nka Seneteri William H.Seward wo mu Ntara ya New York.

Muri uko kwiyamamaza ku mwanya w’ubu perezida Lincoln na none yaje guhura na Stephen Douglas wiyamamazaga aciye mu ishyaka rya Northern Democrats ,ariko noneho amahirwe yari aya Lincoln watsinze mu majwi menshi ayakuye mu burasirazuba bw’Amerika(Eastern America);ahita aba perezida wa 16 w’Amerika.

Kubera amahame y’ishyaka rye yo kwamagana icuruzwa ry’abantu ryakorwaga muri bamwe  mu banyamerika bacuruzaga abirabura, byatumye agace k’amajyepfo kivangura icyo gihe havuka intambara z’abanyamerika b’iburasirazuba n’ab’iburengerazuba ariko iyo ntambara yaje kurangira mu mpera z’umwaka 1862.

Mu mwaka 1864, Lincoln yahuye n’ibihe bikomeye ubwo yiyamarizaga manda ya kabiri aho yahanganaga n’umukandida wicyamamare wo mu ishyaka ry’aba Democrats,ariwe George McClellan, ariko kubera ihame yagenderagaho ryo kongera guhuza Amerika y’iburasirazuba n’iy’iburengerazuba mu gihe mukeba we yari agishyigikiye ko biba ibihugu bibiri ibyo byatumye Lincoln atsinda ku bwinshi kubera abaturage bifuzaga ko Amerika yakomeza ikaba igihugu kimwe, ku itariki 04 Werurwe 1865 arongera arahirira kuba Perezida w’igihugu cy’ Amerika muri manda ya kabiri.

Kubera ibitekerezo bye yagiraga byo gushaka ubwumvikane biciye mu biganiro atari intambara  no kurwanya ivangura muri bamwe mu banyamerika hamwe no guhagarika icuruzwa ry’abantu mu gihugu cyose cy’Amerika icyo ni cyo kintu gituma na nubu akibukwa muri bamwe mu banyamerika b’intwari,agashyirwa ku mwanya wa 3 mu ba perezida 10 beza bayoboye Amerika ariko kubera ayo mahame ye niyo yatumye yangwa n’abahezanguni mu ivangura ry’amoko n’icuruzwa ry’abantu aribo bapanze kumwica bwa mbere ku bw’amahirwe ararusimbuka muri Kamena 1864.

Ariko burya ngo ntawe uva mu mva kabiri,kuko kuwa Gatanu itariki 14 Mata 1865 ari kumwe n’umufasha we  Mery Kentucky ,ubwo bari bagiye mu nzu mberabyombi haberaga iserukiramuco bikaba ari bimwe mu birori  byakundwaga cyane  n’Abanyamerika bitaga “OUR AMERICAN COUSIN” yarashwe isasu ryo mu mutwe n’umwe mu ba komedi witwaga Wilkes Booth.

Bagerageje kumutabara byihuse bamwirukankana kwa muganga ngo barebe ko bakiza ubuzima bwe, ariko yapfuye mu rucyerera rwo ku wa 15 Mata 1865. Ngiyo imvano y’urupfu rwa Lincoln perezida wa 16 w’Amerika.

Mu cyumweru gitaha tuzabagezaho undi mu perezida w’Amerika nawe wishwe n’impamvu yishwe nuwa mwishe.

GAKWANDI James

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