kibwa1Ni kuki aba ba perezida bÔÇÖAmerika bishwe?(igice cya Kabiri)

Mu cyumweru gishize twabagejejeho inkuru ry’iyicwa ry’uwari Perezida wa 16 wa Amerika ariwe Abraham Lincoln wabaye perezida kuva mu mwaka wa 1860 kugeza mu w’1865 ubwo yicwaga  arashwe akaba ariwe wabimburiye abandi ba perezida b’icyo gihugu bicwaga barashwe.

Uyu munsi turabagezaho indi nkuru ya perezida wundi wamaze iminsi 200 gusa ku butegetsi.

Uti hanyuma byaje kugenda kugenda bite? Reka dukurikire iyi nkuru.kibwa1

                                 James Abram Garfield

Uwo mu perezida nta wundi ni uwitwa James Abram Garfield wavutse ku itariki 19 Ugushyingo 1831, avukira mu mu muryango ukennye, mu mujyi wa Orange mu ntara ya Ohio hafi y’umujyi wa Cleveland. Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri James avutse se yahise yitaba Imana arerwa na nyina gusa.

Akiri umwana muto yajyaga akunda gusoma inkuru zijyanye n’abantu bakoraga ingendo zitangaje bituma atekereza kuzaba umwe mu bakora ingendo zo mu mazi (Sea Men) ariko kubera ibibazo yarafite by’ubukene byabaye ngombwa ko abanza gukora ibiraka ku byambu kugira ngo abone amafaranga amutunga kandi agatunga n’umuryango wabo.

Mu mwaka 1851 kugeza 1853 yaje kujya kwiga mu ishuri rikuru  ryitwaga Western Reserve Ecletic ariryo ryaje guhindurirwa izina rikitwa Hiram College ryari riherereye Hiram muri Ohio. Nyuma yaho yaje no kujya kwiga mu kindi kigo cyitwa Williams College cyari ahitwa Williamstown, mu ntara ya Massachusetts.

Yiga muri iryo shuri nibwo impano ye y’ubwenge yagaragaye  nk’umunyeshuri wavugaga mu ruhame  ,mu gihe cy’ibiganiro-mpaka (Debats) kandi ibyo yavugaga bikagaragaza ubuhanga buhanitse.

Arangije kwiga muri iryo shuri yasubiye ku kigo cye cya mbere cya Ecletic Institute aba umwalimu wigisha indimi z’ikigiriki n’ikiratini hamwe n’andi masomo, nyuma y’umwaka umwe yaje gutorerwa kuba perezida w’Inteko y’abarimu bigishaga indimi z’amahanga nyuma muri ubwo bwarimu ninaho yaje gusengerwa aba umuvugabutumwa (Evangelist) kandi akomeza no kwiga ibijyanye n’amategeko.

 Mu mwaka 1858 James yaje gushakana n’umkobwa witwa Lucretia Rudolph  wari umunyeshuri mugenzi we icyo gihe  ku ishuri rya Ecletic Institute kandi nawe wakoraga umurimo w’ubwarimu nk’uwe, nyuma baza no kugira umugisha babyarana abana aribo Harry Augustus, James Rudolph na Abram.

Mu mwaka 1859 James nk’umunyamuryango w’ishyaka ry’aba Republicans yatorewe kuba Senateri w’Intara ya Ohio ari nabwo icyo gihe hatutumbaga intambara yo mu banyamerika ubwabo. Iyo ntambara yatangiye 1861 isozwa 1865 James yahise ajya mu ngabo arwana iyo ntambara yaje no kuzamurwa mu mapeti  ku buryo iyo ntambara  arangiye afite ipeti rya Brigadier.

Akora uwo murimo wa gisirikale mu mwaka 1862 yagizwe umudepite wo mu nteko ya rubanda ruciriritse izwi ku izina rya Congress ahagarariye intara y’iwabo ariyo Ohio  yabanje kwanga kuba umudepite ariko azakwingingwa na Perezida Linconln wariho icyo gihe abona kwemera mu mwaka 1863 afite ipeti rya Jeneral Major yasezeye mu ngabo ajya gukora akazi k’ubudepite.

Mu budepite bwe yahuriyemo n’ibibazo bitandukanye ,ariko agahangana nabyo ;urugero ni nk’ikibazo yaje gushyirwaho cy’uko yahawe ruswa ariko kikabura gihamya aribyo bise mu cyongereza“Credit Mobilier Scandal’’.Aho hari mu m waka wa 1872.

James yari umunyamuryango w’ishyaka ry’aba Republicans ariko muri iryo shyaka harimo ibice bibiri bisa n’ibihanganye:harimo abanyamuryango b’abahezanguni batashakaga impinduka yaba muri Amerika bitwaga“The Stalwarts”;hakaba n’abandi banyamuryango bifuza ko haba impinduka abo nabo bakitwa “Half-Breeds.”Kubera uko gucikamo ibice ku ishyaka rye, James umwanya mwinshi yawukoreshaga ashaka uburyo yahuza izo mpande zombi zitumvikanaga.

Mu mwaka 1880 mu gihe yamamazaga inshuti ye ya cyera mu ishyaka rye witwaga John Sherman, ku mwanya wa prezida wa Republika;kubera uko gucikamo ibice ku imyumvire ihabanye byari muri ryo shyaka, byaje gutangaza abantu ndetse nawe biramutangaza aho inama rusange y’iryo shyaka ry’aba republicans bahisemo izina rya James A. Garfield ko ariwe mu kandida ku mwanya wa perezida iryo shyaka ritanze.

Muri ayo matora y’umukuru w’igihugu James yatsinze uwo bahatanaga wo mu ishyaka rya Abademocratic witwaga Jenerari Winfield Scott Hancock amurushije amajwi  ibihumbi 10.

Amaze kurahirira kuba Perezida wa 20 w’igihugu cy’Amerika, itariki ya 4 Mata1881 yakoresheje igihe kirekire ashyiraho abaminisitiri agerageza gushyira mu myanya abayobozi b’ibigo runaka n’abaminisitiri bamwe abakura mu bahezanguni bitwaga “The Stalwarts “no mu bifuzaga impinduka aribo “The Half-Breeds” aribo yakomotsemo yiyamamaza.

Kubera ko abo muri “The Half-Breeds”  aribo bari bamushyigikiye kugira ngo agera muri perezidanse yagize uwari Senateri James G. Blaine wo mu Ntara ya Maine wari ubakuriye amugira Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga, arongera ashyira abanyamuryango ba “The Half- Breeds” ku bwinshi mu myanya ikomeye muri Goverinoma ye.

Icyo kintu cyo kuzamura mu ntera abo mu gatsiko ke byateje ubushyamirane buturutse mu bahezanguni aribo “Stalwarts” bayobowe n’umukuru wabo Senateri Roscoe Conkling.

Nyuma y’amezi ane y’ubwo bushyamirane, Perezida James we yakomeje  gahunda ye yo gukuraho ivangura ryari muri rubanda no kugerageza guhuza udutsiko tutumvikanaga two mu ishyaka rye ry’ Abarepublicans no mu gihugu cyose muri rusange.

Ariko uwo mwete n’umuhati yari afite waje kurangira ku itariki 2 Nyakanga 1881, ubwo yaraswaga amasasu abiri n’umuntu witwaga Charles Guiteau umuhezanguni wo mu barakare bitwaga “The Stalwarts”; wavuze ko impamvu yamuteye kumurasa,ari uko perezida yari yamwimye  umwanya w’ubuyobozi muri Leta kandi yari yaramushyigikiye mu gihe cyo kwiyamamaza kwe.

Nyuma yuko perezida arashwe akagwa,uwo Gueteau yarafashwe abwira abarinda perezida bari abarindaga Prezida amagambo akurikira: “I have done it, I am a Stalwart and Arthur is president now” ;bisobanura ngo: “Nabikoze,ndi uwo mu barakare ba Stalwart,kandi ubu Arthur niwe Prezida”.

Uwo Charles Gueteau icyaha cyaje kumuhama cyo kwica yabigambiriye ahanishwa igihano cy’urupfu (yaranyonzwe), naho perezida James warashwe,ajya muri koma mu gihe cy’amezi atatu abaganga bagerageza  gukuramo isasu ryari ryinjiye mu mugongo ariko biba iby’ubusa James atabaruka ku itariki ya 19 Nzeri 1881afite imyaka 50. Nguwo uwishe Perezida wa 20 w’Amerika n’icyo yamujijije.

 Ngiyo signature ye.

kibwa2

 Mu cyumweru gitaha tuzabagezaho undi mu Perezida  wa Amerika nawe wishwe  arashwe, nuwamwishe n’icyo yamujijije.

GAKWANDI James

 

(Visited 471 times, 1 visits today)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *