ruNINDE WISHE LUMUMBA (Igice cya Kabiri)

BASABYE UBWIGENGE BATITEGUYE:

Nubwo Kongo yasabaga ubwigenge nta bakozi (Abatekenisiye) ba kavukire  bari bafite, kuko kugeza bahabwa ubwigenge mu bakozi 1400 ba Leta  yashyizweho, abakavukire bari 3 gusa. Nta Muganga bagiraga, abarimu b’amashuri y’isumbuye n’amakuru nta naba ofisiye mu rwego rw’ingabo bari bafite ibyo byose byari mu maboko y’abakoroni ikigaragaza ko basabaga ubwigenge batiteguye kuko n’ubundi abakoroni barakomeje barayobora.

Ariko n’ubwo byari bimeze bityo, igitangaje igihugu cya Kongo cyari gifite abapadiri baba kongomani bagera kuri 600 bagendera ku mahame y’Ababirigi aho bigishaga abaturage ko ubutegetsi bwose buva ku Mana bityo kurwanya abakoroni ari ukurwanya Imana.ru

                            Patrice Lumumba

Igihe narengwa cyarageze haba amatora ya kamarampaka mu mwaka 1960  ishyaka MNC rya Lumumba  ryegukana itsinzi aho ryabonye imyanya (Abadepite) 41 mu nteko yarigizwe n’imyanya y’abadepite 137, imyanya isigaye 96 igabanywa ya mashyaka 12 yari asigaye ni ukuvga ko buri shyaka ryahawe imyanya  (abadepite) 8.

LUMUMBA ATANGIRANA UMWAKU.

Hamwe niyo nsinzi Lumumba yari yegukanye, Leta y’Ububirigi ntiyamwemereye gushyiraho goverinoma kandi ariwe amategeko yemereraga, ahubwo isaba ko Kasavubu umuyobozi w’ishyaka rya ABAKO  wari ufite imyanya 8 mu nteko, ariwe ushyiraho goverinoma.

Byabaye ngombwa ko icyo kivuzo cya Leta y’Ababirigi  kinyanwa mu nteko, kigejejwe mu nteko ngo gitorerwe ishyaka rya Lumumba ryegukanye insinzi y’amajwi74 mu majwi 137 batoye,  bemeza ko Lumumba aba ariwe ushyiraho Goverinoma.

 Leta y’ububirigi itishimiye uwo mwanzuro w’icyo cyemezo baramwemereye we aba Minisitiri w’intebe ari nawe ufite ububasha bwose na Joseph Kasa vubu agirwa Perezida ariko ntabubasha ahabwa n’itegeko bwo kugira icyo yakora.

Mu munsi mukuru wo gutanga ubwiginge  hazamurwa idarapo ry’igihugu cya Kongo bamanura iry’Ababirigi Umwami Boudouin yari ahari  nk’umushyitsi mukuru Lumumba n’umujinya mwinshi yibutse ibyo abo Babirigi bamukoze nibyo bakoreye igihugu cye yabwiye uwo mwami ngo; “Twebwe ntabwo tukiri inkende zawe”.

Lumumba agitangira gutegeka yahuye n’umwaku wa mbere ubwo ingabo z’igihugu “Force Publique”( FP) zigera ku 2,500 zigomekaga, muri icyo gihe zayoborwaga n’abawofiye bagera 1,100 bababirigi muri uko kwigomeka basabaga kongererwa umushahara no guhabwa amapeti kubene gihugu bari bahawe ubwigenge.

Ikindi kintu cyatumye ingabo zigomeka ni ubukire abayobozi b’izindi nzego bari bafite bagendera mu mamodoka ahenze baryoshye naho ingabo z’igihugu zihembwa intica.Uwari umugaba w’ingabo icyo gihe Jenereli Emile Janssens ibyo izo ngabo zasabaga yabitesheje agaciro arangije yandika ku kibaho cyari  ku kicaro gikuru cy’ingabo  amagambo yo kubacyurira yandika atya; mbere y’ubwigenge = nyuma y’ubwigenge ashaka kwerekana ko ubwigenge basabye natyo bwahinduye ku muturage wa Kongo n’ubwo Leta yayoborwa n’abayobozi batowe ariko imyanya ikomeye yari ikiri mu maboko y’Ababirigi nk’ingabo, ubukungu n’indi myanya ya ngombwa, mu yandi magambo mbere yo guhabwa ubwegenge bihwanye na nyuma yo kububona.

Nyuma yaho umugaba mukuru w’ingabo nacyo abamariye, abasirikare basabye Minisitiri w’intebe  ariwe Lumumba ngo amwirukane kubera ububasha yahabwaga n’itegeko nawe yarabumviye aramwirukana amusimbuza Sergent Victor Lundula, kandi ashyiraho n’inshuti ye  n’umujyanama we ariwe Sergent Major Joseph Desire Mobutu icyo gihe afite imyaka 29 amugira ushinzwe ubutegetsi mu ngabo (CDF).

Mbere yaho Mobutu yari yarakoreye igisirikare cy ‘Ababirigi kugeza  mu mwaka 1956 ubwo amasezerano ye yarangiraga agatangira gukora itangazamakuru ryigenga kandi ari nako akorera inzego z’ubutasi z’Ababirigi zimuhemba.

Izo mpinduka Lumumba yari akoze ntacyo byahinduye cyangwa ngo bihagarike imyigaragambyo, aho abanyekongo batangiye gukorera urugome ababikira bo mu bwoko bw’Ababirigi hamwe n’abapadiri babo bituma benshi muri bo bahunga.

Muri izo mvururu, Leta y’Ububirigi yasabye Lumumba ko yareka ingabo z’Ababirigi zikaza zigahosha izo mvururu ariko icyo kifuzo agitera utwatsi yivuye inyuma. Amaze kwanga icyo ikifuzo cyabo, Ububirigi  bwahise butegeka ingabo zabo guhosha iyo myigaragambyo bahereye ku ngabo zabo zari mu gihugu imbere ndetse bohereza ni zindi nyinshi kuva i Buruseli.

Uko ingabo z’Ababirigi zagendaga zifata umujyi ziwigarurira, Lumumba yahise atekereza ko igihugu cy’Ububirigi cyashoye intambara mu gihugu cya Kongo ko bashaka kongera kugikoroneza bwa kabiri nawe ahita atangaza urugamba rwo guhangana n’u Bubirigi.

Muri ako kavuyo  k’imyigaragambyo, nibwo Moise Tshombe perezida w’ishyaka riharanira ubwigenge bw’intara ya Katanga (KONAKAT) abifashijwemo na Leta y’Ububirigi hamwe nandi masosiyete y’Ababirigi yarakomeye yacukuraga akanacuruza amabuye y’agaciro muri iyo ntara yahise atangaza ko Katanga ari Leta kandi yigenga nawe akaba ariwe Perezida wiyo Leta.

Kuva Tshombe yasohora iryo tangazo ingabo z’Ababirigi zari muri iyo Leta ya Gatanga, zatangiye kwirukana ingabo zitwaga iza Lumumba (Leta ya Kongo) ari nako zibambura intwaro zishyiraho umutwe mushya w’ingabo wari ushyizweho muri Katanga ari nako  imfashanyo nyinshi zihabwa Tshombe  banamufasha kwigarurira uduce twose twiyo ntara.

Lumumba abonye ko ingabo z’Ababirigi zigaruriye igihugu yitaga ko gifite ubwigenge ntavogerwa, yahise asaba ingabo za LONI ngo zimufashe kwirukana izo ngabo z’Ababirigi zavogeraga ubusugire bw’igihugu cyahawe ubwigenge kinafite icyo bitaga demokarasi.

Icyo kifuzo cye mu gihe cyari kitarasubizwa, n’umujinya mwinshi, ku itariki 17, Nyakanga 1960 yasohoye itangazo rivuga ko nibigera ku itariki ya 19 Nyakanga ni ukuvuga nyuma y’iminsi ibiri ingabo za LONI zitaroherezwa  muri Kongo, we azahita asaba ko Leta y’Uburusiya (Abasoviete) bazana  ingabo zabo muri Kongo zikamufasha.

Icyo gitekerezo cya Lumumba cyo kutumiza ingabo z’Abasoviyete cyahise gitera Leta y’ Amerika yari ihanganye n’ubrusiya icyo gihe kwibaza ukuntu ingabo z’ibihugu bibiri bikomeye ku isi icyo gihe aribyo Amerika n’Uburusiya bagiye guhanganira mu gihugu cya Kongo bigatuma ihinduka Cuba ya Afurika kandi bari bafite impugenge zakongera kuvuka bitewe n’abakomunisti nk’uko byari biherutse kuba muri Cuba mu mwaka 1959 hagati ya  Fidel Castro n’umukoministi Fugencio Batista w’umu Cuba.

Nibwo  ku itariki 22 Nyakanga 1960 bahise batumiza inama y’ umutekano muri Amerika iyobowe ni uwari perezida icyo gihe Dwight Eisenhower, ubwoba bw’Amerika kuri Lumumba bwahise bugaragara ubwo uwari ukuriye urwego rukuru rw’ubutasi ( CIA) Allen Dulles yasobanuraga Lumumba muri iyo nama ko ameze nka Castro cyangwa akaba yanamuruta ariko ikibi cyabayeho kigakora no kuri Lumumba, n’uko yongeyeho ko Lumumba agaragara nk’umuntu waguzwe n’abakomunisiti.

Muri Kongo naho icyo gihe ingabo za LONI zaraje zihambiriza iza Ababirigi ariko Lumumba yongerera  inshingano izo ingabo za Loni ko zagaruza intara ya Katanga yari mu maboko ya Moise Tshombe igihugu kikareka gucikamo ibice.

Ingabo za Loni iryo tegeko rya Lumumba bararyanze bashingiye ko ntaburenganzira bari bafite bwo kwinjira mu butegetsi bwite bwa Kongo, ko inshingano zabo kwari ugukura ingabo z’Ababirigi ari cyo cyari ikibazo muri icyo gihugu  kigakomeza ubwigenge bwacyo, bongeraho ko iyo imitwe itavugarumwe ibyo nabo nka Leta bagomba kubyirangiriza ubwabo.

Icyo cyemezo cya Loni ntabwo Lumumba yacyakiriye neza ahubwo yahise avuga ko ari inama bagiye n’Ububirigi ngo batere Kongo, ariko iyo mvugo ya Lumumba yaje gufatwa nko gusebanya ni uwari umunyamabanga mukuru wa Loni  icyo gihe Dag Hammarskjold avuga ko imvugo ya Lumumba yakoresheje idasenya Kongo gusa, ahubwo igamije gusenya na Loni muri rusange. Ubwo umubano hagati ya Lumumba na LONI wahise uzamo igitotsi

Ku itariki 15, Kamena 1960 abonye ko ananiwe kugaruza intara za Katanga na mu majyepfo ya Kasai agace kiganjemo ubukungu buva ku mabuye y’agaciro yo mu bwoko bwa Diyama (Diamond), Lumumba yahise afata icyemezo arinacyo cyabaye intandaro yo kurangira kwe ahamagara Abarusiya ngo baze bamufashe mu by’ingabo kugirango bagaruze uturere twa Kasai y’amajyepfo, Elizabethville (Lubumbashi) nyuma bazasoreze I Gatanga bakuraho Tshombe.

HATEGURWA UBURYO LUMUMBA YAKWICWA.

Mu yindi nama y’umutekano yabaye muri Amerika  ikurikira iya mbere kuwa 18, Kamena 1960 Perezida Eisenhower yabwiwe kumugaragaro n’abajyanama be ko Lumumba ashaka kwirukana ingabo za Loni muri Kongo akazisimbuzi iza Abasoviyete. Perezida Eisenhower yahise yemeza “iyicwa” rya Lumumba ndetse abigereranya no kwica imbwa ya saze.

Tariki 26 Kamena, ushinzwe ibiro by’ubutasi CIA, Allen Dulles yohereje teregramu ku uwari ukuriye CIA mu mujyi wa Leopldville (Kinshasa y’ubu) ategeka ko “kwica Lumumba ari ngombwa kandi byihutirwa”

Ibyo biba, ingabo zitwaga iza Lumumba zerekezaga I Kasai zigenda zica umugenda abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’Abaluba abenshi  barapfuye abandi barahunga, ariko ibyo bikorwa by’ubwicanyi ingabo za Lumumba zakoraga ntabwo Mobutu wari ufite ipeti rya Koronel byamushimishije niko gufata umwanzuro wo kwitandukanya na we ajya kuruhande rwabataravugaga rumwe nabo baramwakira barisungana.

Ku itariki 5 Nzeri 1960, Perezida Kasavubu wari warashyizweho na Lumumba yacishije itangazo kuri Radiyo yamagana ubutegetsi bwa Lumumba, avuga ko ategekesha igihugu igitugu ari nawe utumye igihugu cyabo kijya mu ntambara z’amoko kubera iyo mpamvu ahagaritswe ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w’Intebe ambusimbuza uwitwaga Joseph Ileo wari umunyapolitiki ariko ukorana n’Ababirigi.

Kuri uwo munsi itangazo ritambuka kuri radiyo ryo guhagarika Lumumba ku mwanya yarariho, nawe yahise atangaza ko yirukanye ku mwanya wa Perezida Joseph Kasavubu ubwo ibyo muri politiki ya Kongo bibura gica, hibazwa ninde ufite uburenganzira bwo kwirukana undi muri abo bayobozi bombi? Ese icyakurikiyeho nikihe? Irakomeza.

GAKWANDI James

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